Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Charge inversion is strong for trivalent counterions
(case 1), and is weak for a monovalent case (case 2).
A rod-shaped macroion undergoes the inversion
when trivalent ions are chained aroud the rod ion (case 3).



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The applied electric field points rightward
Contents
1) spherical shape
2) spherical shape
3) rod shape
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coions

salt

counterions

strongly charged
weakly charged